PUT THE POLITICIANS ON THE MINIMUM WAGE AND WATCH HOW FAST THINGS CHANGE
Civilisation has operated in two ways - To make one part of society more affluent and the other more wretched than would have been the lot of either in a natural state
There are Natural Rights and Civil Rights. Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness
Where Our Power to Execute Our Natural Rights is Perfect, Government has No Legitimate Jurisdiction
When the Forces for War are Greater than the Forces for Peace   Then the World is in Danger
Politics is not a Dirty Word. It is a Way of Life. How is Your Way of Life Today ?
Emile Burns

THIS IS A 1953 READING & STUDY PROGRAMME by the COMMUNIST PARTY FOR THOSE INTERESTED IN MARXISM-UPDATED to MAY

Emile Burns

TODAY IT MIGHT FORM THE BASIS OF A UNIVERSITY DEGREE 
 
The Radical 
12th June 2018

 
WHETHER THIS WAS INTENDED FOR THE INTELLIGENTIA 
 
OR ENTHUSIASTIC UNEDUCATED BUT WORKING CLASS …..IS UNCLEAR
 
IT IS DEEP AND INVOLVED …. HOW MANY WOULD IT ATTRACT TO-DAY 
 
I GIVE YOU JANUARY AND WILL SAY MORE ON FEB – JUNE
 
WOULD IT APPEAL TODAY ?
 
FOLLOWING :- I GIVE YOU THE REPEAT OF :- 
 
THE RADICALS POLITICAL ECONOMY
~by John Eaton in precis form 
 
One section a day  
————————————————————————————-
Introduction to Marxism
 
 (1 penny and a half penny) 
 
A Six Month Reading and Study Programme
 
Elementary
 
The Study Programme is based on the Introduction to Marxism by Emile Burns
 
Other reading is advisable
 
The Course aims to provide a general introduction to the study of Marxism-Leninism  
A number of questions are put for discussion after each months  reading. 
 
Discussion of these and other questions should take place,as far as possible  with the help of a  consultant.
 
NOTE TO STUDENTS AND CONSULTANTS
 
The Central Education Dept would like to be informed of any special issues and difficulties that arise in the course of the study and discussion of this programme
 
MAY
 
Subject
THE MARXIST WORLD OUTLOOK
 
Reading
Introduction to Marxism Ch 7
Stalin : Anarchism or Socialism FLPH – pp13 – 18, 29 – 41
 
Questions for Discussion
1. What do we mean by the dialectical method ?
2. What is the importance to the working class of Marxist philosophy – dialectical materialism
3. Some right-wing Labour leaders claim that British Socialists are concerned with “practical problems and do not need philosophy” What are your comments on this ?
 
NEXT JUNE 
 

 

 

 

 

THE ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM – Concluded – REPEATED

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download 1
FROM “POLITICAL ECONOMY” BY JOHN EATON – 
 
The Radical
 1st April  2018
 
A MARXIST TEXTBOOK THAT’S EASY TO UNDERSTAND !
 
THIS WEEK
DEVELOPMENT OF CAPITALIST PRODUCTION
PART PLAYED BY THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION
 
Then the Next Chapter – 8th April 2018
 
THE ESSENCE OF CAPITAL EXPLOITATION – 
WHAT IS PROFIT ?
———————————————————————————-
The Development of the Capitalist mode of Production
 
Capitalist production at first developed slowly.
 
As Feudalism refused to die.
 
The mode of production into the 19C is described here.
 
The Putting Out System
 
The Merchants Guilds and Crafts were concentrating power in their hands and their dominance needed to be challenged.
 
The growing markets were breaking these down 
 
More plentiful and cheaper supplies of goods to sell were sort after so  these Merchants and well to do Craftsmen  turned their attention to production from new sources.
 
They developed the putting out system,also known as domestic industry on a considerable scale .
 
The Merchant -employer (almost a capitalist) bought the raw material such as wool and “put it out” to smaller craftsmen,the spinners,weavers,carders,fullers,dyers etc..
 
In order to avoid the Guilds restrictions the work was generally put out in the countryside outside the jurisdiction of the towns.
 
The “Capitalist” paid the worker for his labour and became the owner of the finished cloth which he sold at a profit.
 
This “in-between” kind of capitalism, where the worker often owned his own means of production and worked at his loom, in his own house could not last, because now he no longer owned all his means of production,since the raw material belonged to his employer .
 
The worker was in effect forced to borrow the means of carrying on production – at a high rate of interest.
 
Marx explains “The transition from the feudal mode of production that takes two roads” 
 
The producer becomes a merchant and capitalist – or the merchant takes possession in a direct way of production. 
 
Raw Material to Cloth directly or indirectly 
 
The system must be descibed as revolutionary and contradictory to the Feudal system of a natural agricultural economy.  
 
Cooperation and Manufacture
 
“When numerous labourers work together side by side, whether in one and the same process, or in different but connected processes they are said to cooperate or work in cooperation” Marx 
 
Long before capitalism men cooperated, but with the emergence of capitalism cooperation brings with it a great increase of productive power, overhead costs (per unit of output) are reduced, efficiency is stimulated by the contact of workers with one another in production, joint efforts make possible achievements of an altogether different kind from those within the power of individual workers. ( for example the building of a dam).
 
This SOCIAL labour process distinguishes the capitalist mode of production from feudal production.
 
From the 16th – 18th C, prior to the age of modern machinery was what Marx termed as MANUFACTURE, which involved extensive division of labour between many workers who were brought together in one place of work or factory. 
 
Newer industries such as paper, gunpowder, cannon -making and sugar refining worked in this way.
 
The development of Manufacture followed two courses.
 
First – Craftsmen whose several skils contributed to the production of one article and became specialists. Wheelwrights, upholsterers,locksmiths.
 
Secondly – Craftsmen in one trade brought together – and in time would divide the process of work so that individual workmen becamer specialists in particular operations.

 
Wire and pin and needle makers.

 
“The collective labourer” writes Marx carries with it downgrading of labour into skilled and unskilled.
 
Manufacture adapts not only the worker to specialised work ,but also his tools.
 
Cutting tools, hammers drills lathes etc. are adapted each to a special purpose, beyond the reach of the individual craftsman.
 
This period of manufacture ends with the industrial revolution at the end of the 18th C and beginning of the 19thC for which manufacture paved the way, capitalist production, based on large scale mechanised industry reaches the conditions for its full development. 
 
The Productive Forces of Capitalism released by the English Revolution
 
Freed from the shackles of feudalism, full bloodied industrial was allowed to develop.
 
” Force ( of change ) (writes Marx) is the midwife of every old society pregnant with a new one “
 
The struggle between the old society and the new reached its culmination in the Revolution of 1640.
 
The Parliamentarians supported the capitalists, the Royalists the Feudalists.

 
In the middle were the small and medium sized yeoman farmers who were staunch supporters of the Revolution.
 

This does over simplify the position but as the issue was Parliament versus the Absolute Monarchy.

 
Parliament represented the interests of the rising capitalists, which the Royalists saw as the threat.
 

The immediate cause of the outbreak of the Civil War between King and Parliament was the attempt to impose taxes without the consent of Parliament. 
 
However, the root issue was who should hold STATE – POWER,the rising capitalist class or the feudal ruling class and those now mustered about the King. 
 
The issue was who should control legislation,taxation,administration,the armed forces and legal system.
—————————————————-
The Capitalists were so determined that they cut the head of the King to get their way. 
 
So that should tell you something about the lengths they will go to get their way !
 
Therefore the revolutionaries may be right afterall, 
 
capitalists may only allow change to come violently !
——————————————————–
 
Machinery and Large- scale Industry 
 
“….The transition from manufacture to the factory marks a complete technical revolution which eliminates the age-old skill of the craftsman and this technical revolution is followed by an extremely sharp change in the social relations of production,by a final rupture between the various groups taking part in production, a complete ruputure with tradition,the intensification and expansion of all the gloomy sides of capitalism, and at the same time the mass socialisation of labour by capitalism.
 
Thus large scale machine industry is the last word of capitalism ,the last word of its negative and “positive” aspects ” MARX .
 
See “the Rise and Fall of Capitalism” in the first article, how invention transformed the 18th C onwards. 
 
Increased good produced for an ever expanding world market. 
 
The productivity of labour, the output per man hour increased sixfold in sixty years from 1820 -60 in spinning and and twelve times in weaving. 
 
With the introduction of this new machinery, an ever wider gulf was fixed between capitalist and worker.
 
Unskilled labour replaced skilled, women and children replaced men in the “dark satanic mills”
and the domestic industry collapsed.
 
Never again could the worker own for himself his means of production.
 
Either the worker must remain subject to the clique of the wealthy capitalists or else free himself by uniting with other workers to take into social control and ownership the socialised means of production on which the life of modern society had come to depend.
 
Next 
 
The Essence of Capitalist Exploitation
What is profit
How it is made
Profit in Modern Capitalist Society
 
The Cycle of Capitalist Production
How the Value of the Product is made up
Wages
 
Value of Labour – Power
Living Standards of the workers
The Secret of Surplus Value
 
The rate of Surplus Value and Class Struggle
Wages and the Struggle Between Capitalist and Worker
Abolition of the “Wages System”
 
Stay with it comrade !

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