PUT THE POLITICIANS ON THE MINIMUM WAGE AND WATCH HOW FAST THINGS CHANGE
Civilisation has operated in two ways - To make one part of society more affluent and the other more wretched than would have been the lot of either in a natural state
There are Natural Rights and Civil Rights. Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness
Where Our Power to Execute Our Natural Rights is Perfect, Government has No Legitimate Jurisdiction
When the Forces for War are Greater than the Forces for Peace   Then the World is in Danger
Politics is not a Dirty Word. It is a Way of Life. How is Your Way of Life Today ?
Emile Burns

THIS IS A 1953 READING & STUDY PROGRAMME by the COMMUNIST PARTY FOR THOSE INTERESTED IN MARXISM-UPDATED to APRIL

Emile Burns
TODAY IT MIGHT FORM THE BASIS OF A UNIVERSITY DEGREE 
 
 
The Radical 
11th June 2018

 
WHETHER THIS WAS INTENDED FOR THE INTELLIGENTIA 
 
OR ENTHUSIASTIC UNEDUCATED BUT WORKING CLASS …..IS UNCLEAR
 
IT IS DEEP AND INVOLVED …. HOW MANY WOULD IT ATTRACT TO-DAY 
 
I GIVE YOU JANUARY AND WILL SAY MORE ON FEB – JUNE
 
WOULD IT APPEAL TODAY ?
 
FOLLOWING :- I GIVE YOU THE REPEAT OF :- 
 
THE RADICALS POLITICAL ECONOMY
 
~by John Eaton in precis form 
 
One section a day  
————————————————————————————-
Introduction to Marxism
 
 (1 penny and a half penny) 
 
A Six Month Reading and Study Programme
 
Elementary
 
The Study Programme is based on the Introduction to Marxism by Emile Burns
 
Other reading is advisable
 
The Course aims to provide a general introduction to nthe study of Marxism-Leninism  
 
A number of questions are put for discussion after each months  reading. 
 
Discussion of these and other questions should take place,as far as possible  with the help of a  consultant.
 
NOTE TO STUDENTS AND CONSULTANTS
 
The Central Education Dept would like to be informed of any special issues and difficulties that arise in the course of the study and discussion of this programme
 
APRIL 
 
Subject
 
SOCIALIST SOCIETY
 
Reading 
 
Introduction to Marxism Ch 6
 
Stalin : Anarchism or Socialism – FLPH 6d pp 57- 64
 
The British Road to Socialism – Revised edition pp 9-17
 
Questions for Discussion
 
1. The Right Wing Labour Leaders claimed to have begun to establish Socialism during the third and fourth Labour Governments. Is there any truth in this claim ?
2 Why are there differences of wages under Socialism ?
3 What the differences between Socialism and Communism
 
Next May
———————————————————————————————

 

 

 

 

THE ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM -CONTINUED – THIS SUNDAY’S STORY -REPEATED

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 A MARXIST TEXTBOOK

THAT’S EASY TO UNDERSTAND

 
The Radical
25th March 2018
 
 
FROM “POLITICAL ECONOMY” BY JOHN EATON –

 
This Week
MARKET GROWTH
DECAY OF FEUDALISM 
“PRIMITIVE ACCUMULATION”
 and the 
ORIGINS OF THE PROLETARIAT
 
 
Next Week 
DEVELOPMENT OF CAPITALIST PRODUCTION
PART PLAYED BY THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION
 
 
THE MERCHANT CLASS
 
The earliest form of capital was merchant capital, long before the capitalism system.
 
In Egypt, Asia Minor, Greece and Rome traders became wealthy and powerful

 
combining commerce with piracy.

 
Expansion to Northern Italy and Flanders -saw  Baltic Trade and in England at Norwich and London.
 
In the 11C the Crusades stimulated trade between Europe and the Middle East as merchants followed in their wake. 
 
Robbery and Cheating was common and once more trade and violence went hand in hand.
 
GROWTH OF THE MARKET AND ITS EFFECT
 
Opening up the markets had an effect – spices, silks and carpets needed protection.
 
Feudal Courts and Castles appeared.
 
The wealthy landowner could afford these luxuries and did !
 
Money was becoming Power
 
Piracy and Plunder in the 15th and 16th C in the Americas gave further impetus to greed and the opening of the sea route to India led to deeper penetration into Feudal society.
 
MARX-”  The development of commerce and merchants capital”- “brings forth everywhere the tendency towards production of exchange values,increases its volume,multiples and monopolises it,develops money into world money.

 
Commerce therefore has everywhere more or less of a dissolving influence on the producing organisations, which it finds at hand and whose  different forms are mainly carried on with a view to immediate use ……… 
 

In the antique world the effect of commerce and development of merchants capital always results in a slave economy ………..”
 
 However in the modern world, it results in the capitalist mode of production.
 
( NOW YOU  CAN SEE WHERE CAPITALISTS AND CAPITALISM COMES FROM – 
 
Wealth Power,Piracy Robbery Cheating and Violence ) 
 
Has MARX convinced you ?
 
THE INTERNAL DECAY OF FEUDALISM
 
If Money and Commerce acted as a solvent, breaking down old societies,then the merchant capitalists became a new power in the land.
 
All this “softened up” and weakened  the structure of the old society,but the root cause of the dissolution of Feudalism was FAILURE or rather inability of the mode of production to develop.
 
The poverty of the peasant did nothing to enrich the land and medival cropping became exhausted. 
 
The growing need of the feudal ruling class for money and more “slaves” made them parasites.
 
The supply dried up – conflict between serf and lord grew and the more the feudal lords strove for survival the more accelerated the downfall of feudal power  became.
 
Feudalism declined as merchants and budding capitalists moved to the towns.
 
Feudalism was struggling on its death-bed as today moribund capitalism struggles ever more desperately against the rising power of Socialism 
 
In the towns a never ending fight against the church, king and feudal lords over their monopoly in milling of grain and baking of bread.
 
The tyranny of the sherrifs and the “clerks of the kings markets” !
 
Guilds of craftsmen and merchants developed into the restricted class, ruling affairs in self interest. 
 
All issues that aligned class forces – religious and moral precepts that culminated in the English Revolution of 1640 -1680. 
 
The root issue was State- power -whether  the rising capitalist class or the old feudal order controlled legislation,administration, the armed forces, and the legal system.
 
The capitalists needed control of the State apparatus in order that they might have freedom to buy and sell the land and do with it as they willed. 
 
This was baulked by feudal customs and legal provisions .
 
The capitalists wanted freedom to to employ whom they wished.
 
The serf and peasant was tied to his lords land and in the town, apprentices and journeyman under the jurisdiction of the guilds.
 
“PRIMITIVE ACCUMULATION” and the ORIGINS OF THE PROLETARIAT 
(Dont Miss this Section)
 
Capitalism could not develop until, in addition to the accumulation of wealth in a few hands ,there were also men and women FREE to sell their labour power for wages and at the same time “FREE” from any other means of getting a living.
 
(Think of it as you having been corralled into a condition of confinement…. 
YOU the working class, -US the capitalist class 
And dont you forget it chum ? )
 
 Marx told you – 
Workers of the  world, unite! You have nothing to lose but your chains!- 
 
 It is inscribed on Karl Marx tombstone in London
 
The political slogan Workers of the world, unite! is one of the most famous rallying cries from the Communist Manifesto (1848), ] by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels )
 
Primitive accumulation – So it came to pass ( as the legend of theological sin tells us ) that one sort  “accumulated” wealth and the other sort had at last nothing to sell, except their own skins.
 
And that from this original sin dates the poverty of the great majority.
 
Such widespread childishness is every day preached to us in the defence of property 
 
But it was trade , helped by war, brigandage and cheating fostered the accumulation  of wealth.
 
If you were born landless, propertyless,the dispossed classes, a  proletariat to be,
 you were formed as a result. 
 
In feudal society, the peasantry was the main producing class, as were serfs or tenant farmers  and it was by depriving them of land, by those who had it,that the working classes or proletariat was primarily formed.
 
This happened in a number of ways :
 
Sometimes the peasants, pressed too hard by the greed and cruelty of the landowners,deserted to the woods and to the towns; sometimes the peasants’ land was simply takken by force in order that the landlords might turn the land thus appropriated into pasturage for sheep, and so get themselves moneyed wealth from the sale of wool, for which the growning texilte industry provided a ready market in the 15th & 16th C.
 
“FORCIBLE USURPATION ….” says Marx
 
“This process of theft was carried on by individual acts of violence against which legislation, for a hundred and fifty years ,fought in vain.
 
In the 18thC that law itself becomes now the instrument of the theft of the people’s land”
 
The huge extent of the “legal” enclosures in the 18th C may be gauged from the fact that in the reign of George III alone 3554 Acts of Enclosure were passed appropriating 5.5 MILLION acres of land.
 
Extensive enclosures continued into the 19C . 
 
3.5 MILLION acres being appropriated between 1801 and 1831.
 
The proces of formulating the Working Classes (Proletariat) continued in Britain for 500 years from the 14th – 19th C.
 
The same theft of lands occured in Kenya and other Colonies. 
 
Even Gestapo methods were used – fingerprinting and Concentration Camps
 
But by the end of the 16C the masses of the people in Britain, had in long bitter struggles, won a number of freedoms from the more degrading obligations of serfdom.
 
Some even aquired full freedom and owned their land.
 
Yeoman and Craftsmen who aspired to the status of squire and lesser nobles who were living on capitalist lines employing wage – workers.
 
But at the other end of the scale, many peasants who were forced into debt to sell their property, leave their land to become beggars or wage labourers.
 
This was all as a result of the enclosures, the impoverishment and exploitation by the “capitalist” and ruling  classes including the Crown and Church.
 
Capitalist economists and other apologists for capitalism  would do well to study this period of history better and the lies of thrift, abstinence and “thought for the morrow”.
 
Marx speaks of the two fold process of this so called  “primitive accumulation”, which turned into the historical process of divorcing the producer ( the working classes  from the means of production … 
 
In the history of ” primitive accumulation” all this robbery of common lands and the forcible 
exploitation of man by man by State and Church was the start of capitialism as it is known today. 
 
They conquered the field for capitalist agriculture and created for the town industries the necessary supply of a “free” and outlawed proletariat. 
 
Alongside these violent transformations of the agricultural econony of feudalism was the power to “accumulate” money and other forms of wealth that coul;d be turned into capital.
 
But it was the black skins that that signalled the rosy dawn of the erta of capitalist production.
And to a degree still is !
 
( Its time to take these stolen lands and properties back into public ownership without compensation and with heavy fines for theft. 
 
We owe it to our peasant ancestors – Yours and Mine ? )
 
(Just think how that might improve the fortunes of the people over the Crown and Squirearchy)
 
 
NEXT WEEK

 
– THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CAPITAL MODE OF PRODUCTION

including 
The “Putting- Out” System
Cooperation and Manufacture 
And – THE PRODUCTIVE FORCES OF CAPITALISM RELEASED BY THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION
Machinery and Large-scale Industry 
 
LATER
THE ESSENCE OF CAPITALIST EXPLOITATION
What is profit ?

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