Civilisation has operated in two ways - To make one part of society more affluent and the other more wretched than would have been the lot of either in a natural state
There are Natural Rights and Civil Rights. Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness
Where Our Power to Execute Our Natural Rights is Perfect, Government has No Legitimate Jurisdiction
When the Forces for War are Greater than the Forces for Peace   Then the World is in Danger
Politics is not a Dirty Word. It is a Way of Life. How is Your Way of Life Today ?


Science in History is a four-volume book
by scientist and historian….
The Radical 
18th March 2018
…..Professor John Desmond Bernal, first published in 1954.
Buy it as a Pelican Softback ?
It was the first comprehensive attempt to analyse the reciprocal relations
of science and society throughout history. 
The Volumes
Vol.1, The Emergence of Science, 
Vol.2, The Scientific and Industrial Revolution, 
Vol.3, The Natural Sciences in Our Time, 
Vol.4, The Social Sciences: Conclusion, 
J. D. Bernal’s monumental work Science in History is the first full-scale attempt to analyze the relationship between science and society throughout history, from the perfection of the first flint hand ax to the construction of the hydrogen bomb.
This remarkable study illustrates the impetus given to and the limitations placed upon discovery and invention by pastoral, agricultural, feudal, capitalist, and socialist systems, and conversely the ways in which science has altered economic, social, and political beliefs and practices.
This first volume begins with the discussion of the particular nature and methodology of science. It then continues with a description of the emergence of science in the Stone Age, and traces its development through the full formulations of the Greeks to its development under Christendom and Islam in the Middle Ages.
The second volume of Science in History traces the progress of modern science, from its origins in the Renaissance on into the seventeenth century, when it was stimulated by the growth of capitalism.
J. D. Bernal goes on to record the spread of established science and its share in the transformation of industry up to the end of the nineteenth century.
‘This stupendous work … is a magnificent synoptic view of the rise of science and its impacton society which leaves the reader awe-struck by Professor Bernal’s encyclopedic knowledge and historical sweep.’ Times Literary Supplement
Volume 3 is devoted entirely to the twentieth century and the remarkable growth of scientific thought which has occurred in modern times — from the new sciences of nuclear physics and electronics to discoveries and advances in biology and related fields.
This fourth and final volume discusses the social sciences, from early rituals and myths, through ancient and medieval conceptualisation of society, and finally on to Marxism, economics, anthropology, and these sciences’ impact on twentieth-century perspectives.
‘This stupendous work … is a magnificent synoptic view of the rise of science and its impact on society which leaves the reader awe-struck by Professor Bernal’s encyclopaedic knowledge and historical sweep.’ Times Literary Supplement

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