Political Economy – by John Eaton
29th April 2018
An Easy to Understand Marxist Textbook
The Rate of Surplus Value and the Class Struggle
Wages and the Struggle Between Capitalist and Worker
Abolition of the “Wages System”
THE RATE OF SURPLUS VALUE AND THE CLASS STRUGGLE
The aim of the Capitalist by increasing his Profit margin is to EXPAND HIS CAPITAL.
He does this by increasing his share of the values created by labour and to decrease the share going to the workers as wages -( directly or indirectly )
The ratio of the surplus value to wages is described as “the rate of surplus value” also called
“THE RATE OF EXPLOITATION”.
WAGES – Paid
SURPLUS – Unpaid
The surplus is increased by
1. extending the working day without increasing wages
2. reducing wages without reducing the working day or output
3. by increasing output ( making the worker work harder)
4. by increasing output (by improving methods of production)
5. by increasing output ( with less labour)
THE INTERESTS OF THE CAPITALIST AND THE WORKER ARE DIAMETRICALLY OPPOSED
One to increase wages and conditions
The other to increase profits
Therefore the history of capitalism is the history of conflict
between the capitalist class and the working class.
WAGES AND THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN CAPITALIST AND WORKER
THE CLASS STRUGGLE ASSUMES MANY DIFFERENT FORMS
As outlined above….
Therefore class struggle springs, from the very essence of capitalist production.
The exercise of force by the state is but the violent continuation of the domination which finds “peaceful” expression in legislation.
Here again and again the use of force by the police or the armed forces protects the interests of the capitalist class.
In the most ruthless form of the capitalist state, the fascist state, the use of violence and terror against trade unionists and militant workers is resorted continuously and unremittingly.
Finally ,the control of the press and other means of disseminating information by capitalists or those whose outlook is that of the capitalists plays an important part in the class struggle.
The workers are misinformed,confused,and misled by organs of propaganda which unceasingly depict events from the capitalist standpoint.
In this field capitalist domination of social and economic thought is a matter of no small importance.
The successful boycotting of Marx’s economic teaching in the curriculum of most educational institutions in Britain and the substitution of “bourgeois” economics which reject the LABOUR THEORY OF VALUE – and the whole doctrine of SURPLUS VALUE- in favour of worthless theories which hide the nature of CAPITALIST EXPLOITATION,is but a further way in which class struggle is waged by the capitalists in the realm of propaganda and ideas.
THE CLASS STRUGGLE FINDS ITS MOST DIRECT AND OPEN EXPRESSION
IN STRIKES AND LOCK OUTS.
READ “CONDITIONS OF THE WORKING CLASS” by Frederick Engels in 1844 to understand
“The incredible frequency of strikes proves best of all to what extent social war has broken out all over England”
At the end of the 19C there was a great new wave of strike struggles.
The Match Girls Strike 1844
The Gas Workers Strike 1889
The Great Dock Strike 1889
and the formation of new mass unions of the unskilled.
Throughout the 20C the period of capitalism’s GENERAL CRISIS from 1919 – 1921
SIX AND A HALF MILLION WORKERS WERE INVOLVED IN MASS STRIKE STRUGGLES
INVOLVING 150 MILLION WORKING DAYS.
IN THE 1926 GENERAL STRIKE TWO MILLION,SEVEN HUNDRED THOUSAND
WERE ON STRIKE
AND BETWEEN 1929 – 1932 ONE MILLION SEVEN HUNDRED THOUSAND WORKERS
WERE ON STRIKE TOTALLING 26 MILLION WORKING DAYS LOST.
As the crisis of capitalist society deepens the immediate economic demands of the workers become more and more bound up with political struggles.
All the heroic battles of the workers within capitalism do little more than hold back the capitalists attempts to force wages and living conditions down below the VALUE OF LABOUR POWER.
“For the working class to renounce their resistance against encroachment of capital, abandon their attempts at making the best of the occasional chances of their temporary improvement”, MARX said – would ;
” BE DEGRADED TO ONE LEVEL MASS OF BROKEN WRETCHES PAST SALVATION”
” However — THE WORKING CLASS OUGHT NOT TO EXAGGERATE TO THEMSELVES THE ULTIMATE WORKING OF THESE EVERY DAY STRUGGLES”
Inevitably the political and economic struggles of the workers interlock
( THAT IS WHY CORBYN MUST INVOLVE THE TRADE UNIONS MORE IN LABOUR’S POLITICAL STRUGGLE AND THE TRADE UNIONS MUST EMBRACE BETTER THE MARXIST POLITICAL ECONOMY WITHIN THEIR OWN ORGANISATIONS )
The BRITISH WORKING CLASS developed the CHARTIST MOVEMENT , THE TRADE UNION MOVEMENT, THE LABOUR PARTY AND OTHER LEFT WING POLITICAL ORGANISATIONS, ultimately as the struggle to safeguard the interests of the workers within capitalism .
Guided by Marxist theory and understanding the need for a revolutionary party giving leadership to the struggles of the working class as a whole.
Today a merger becomes more essential with the wider struggle to take power from the capitalists and abolish the capitalist system.
(The Labour Party has a duty to be more inclusive for the sake of UNITY of PURPOSE
(TO SMASH FASCISM IN THE FORM OF CAPITALISM AND TAKE POWER FROM THE RULING CLASSES WHO SUPPORT IT)
(CALL IT SOCIALISM OR WORKING CLASS POWER, ONLY THOSE COMMITTED TO WORKING CLASS CONTROL NEED APPLY )
THE ABOLITION OF THE “WAGES SYSTEM”
Trade Unions are the SCHOOLS in which the Working Class learns the lessons which will bring them complete and final victory over the capitalist class .
Since the immediate results of the day to day struggles are necessarily limited, the working class “ought … not to be exclusively absorbed in these unavoidable guerilla fights…..
They ought to understand that with all the miseries it imposes upon them , the present system simultaneously endangers the MATERIAL CONDITIONS and the SOCIAL FORMS necessary for an economic reconstruction of society.
Instead of the CONSERVATIVE motto :-” A fair day’s wages for a fair days’s work! ”
They ought to inscribe on their banner the revolutionary watchword :
“ABOLITION OF THE WAGES SYSTEM ” ( Marx – Value Price and Profit )
Daylight Hours means Evenings spent soaking up the Summer Sun ?
And for the next 6 weeks the days get longer
And so does the lawn
We have started to put out Thousands of Bedding Plants
Now Where did I put the BBQ ?
So this Sunday Story will now be continued
IN THE AUTUMN
As the nights grow longer
And The Radical has more time
The NEXT CHAPTER is
CAPITAL AND ACCUMULATION
“Capital” Implies a Particular Historic Period
“Capital” in Common Parlance ( In Working Class Understandable Terms)
Capital Embodies Specific Social Relations and Historic Conditions
Capital as Dead Labour Ruling Over Living Labour
The Turnover of Capital
Followed by THE DISTRIBTUION OF “SURPLUS VALUE”
then RENT AND CAPITALISM IN AGRICULTURE & IMPERIALISM
Happy Days ……………………………………..
Similar Recent Posts by this Author:
- THE SUNDAY STORY- ESSENCE OF CAPITALIST EXPLOITATION – 22nd April Continued –
- ESSENCE OF CAPITALIST EXPLOITATION – THE VALUE OF LABOUR POWER -REPEATED
- Power and the (Socialist) Story – Amen ?
- THE ORIGINS OF CAPITALISM – THIS SUNDAY’S STORY –
- The Sunday Story – What is Profit
- THE ESSENCE OF CAPITALIST EXPLOITATION – Continued – Marxism differs from the “apologists for capitalism”